Newcomers to Odin from C-like languages often ask why the declaration syntax is different, or even “opposite” to what they are used to. In this article, we will compare the two languages and explain why I arrived at Odin’s declaration syntax.

C’s Syntax #

The declaration syntax in C is often thought of as “type first”, i.e. type declaration and usage in an expression share the same syntax1. Therefore:

int x;

declares x to be an int, or more correctly, the expression x will have type int. Determining how to write the type for a variable declaration involves writing an expression that evaluates the variable’s type completely.

int *ptr;

states that ptr is a pointer to int because *ptr has type int.

int array[3];

states that array is an array of three ints because array[0] has type int.

Following these rules, more complex types can be built up:

int *a[3];

states that a is an array 3 of pointer to int because *a[0] has type int.

int (*b)[3]; // pointer to array 3 of int

states that b is a pointer to array 3 int because (*b)[0] has type int.

Procedures #

In the “original” pre-standardized C, procedure declarations express their types after the parameters names2:

int main(argc, argv)
	int argc;
	char *argv[];

Contemporary C’s declaration-matches-usage was merged, making it more familiar:

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {

This idea worked well enough in general, but it started to become unwieldy as soon as the programmer wants to declare a procedure pointer:

int (*pp)(int x, int y);

Where pp is pointer to a procedure because if (*pp)(x, y) is written3, it is a call that returns an int.

This is what is required to use pp as one of the parameters of the procedure itself:

int (*qp)(int (*pp)(int x, int y), int b);

This is now really difficult to read without using typedef declarations.

Removing the identifier to turn a procedure’s signature into a declaration can result in dense, confusing syntax:

int main(int, char *[])
int (*)(int, int)
int (*qp)(int (*)(int x, int y), int b)

And what if the procedure pointer qp needed to return another procedure pointer instead of int?

int (*(*qp)(int (*)(int, int), int))(int, int)

Type Qualifiers #

C has many different type qualifiers to indicate specific behaviour of a type. The following is an example of many of them applied to one huge declaration:

_Atomic unsigned long long int const volatile *restrict foo[]; // Yeah...

An interesting thing about type qualifiers is that they can be in different places and still express the same thing:

int const x;
const int x;

const int *y;
int const *y;

And typedef has the same behaviour too:

typedef int my_int;
int typedef my_int;

Symbol Table #

C requires a symbol table to parse to disambiguate between type declarations and an expression, e.g.:

foo * bar;

At first glance, it is impossible to know if this an expression or a declaration, and the compiler must use a symbol table to differentiate them whilst parsing.

Odin Syntax #

Odin’s approach is much closer to that of a Pascal-style approach, which is a lot easier to read, parse, and comprehend:

x:     int
ptr:   ^int
array: [3]int

where x is a variable of type int, ptr is a pointer to int, and array is an array 3 of ints.

Unlike C, there is no relation between the type [3]int and how it will be used in an expression. Readability and simplicity is gained, at the “expense” of separating declaration and usage syntax:

array: [3]int
x = array[i]

ptr: ^int
x = ptr^

Note: Odin borrows the ^ syntax for pointers from the Pascal family, because it is pointy and allows for consistent usage of the type-on-left (i.e. ^int, a pointer to an int), and usage-on-right (x^, dereference a pointer to an int) idiom.

Procedures #

Odin’s procedure syntax follows a very similar approach as with other variable declarations. Odin’s entry point doesn’t take or return anything, but if the C form is transliterated into Odin:

main :: proc(argc: int, argv: []string) -> int {

This specific example may not be that much different from C other than the char * to string, but the entire declaration is readable from left-to-right:

main is declared a procedure that takes an int and a slice of strings, and returns an int, with a defined body.

Note: A proper semantic translation of that signature would be proc "c" (argc:, argv: [^]cstring) ->, but for understandability of this article, a transliteration is done to keep things understandable.

One of the beautiful aspects of this style is that it is very easy to drop the procedure’s parameter names and there is absolutely no confusion:

main :: proc(int, []string) -> int {

Another wonderful aspect of the ability to read left-to-right is that more complex types are easier to comprehend. Transliterating the C examples for the procedure pointers into the analogous procedure variables in Odin:

qp: proc(pp: proc(x: int, y: int) -> int, b: int) -> int

or if qp was to return a procedure:

qp: proc(pp: proc(x: int, y: int) -> int, b: int) -> proc(int, int) -> int

or with all the parameter names removed:

qp: proc(proc(int, int) -> int, int) -> proc(int, int) -> int

All of these declarations are still read very clearly from left-to-right, and it is still obvious without names what is declared where.

Syntactic Meaning of : #

Unlike C, Odin uses : to separate the name from the type in a value declaration. This symbol allows for the ability for the type be omitted and inferred from the declaration. The following are all equivalent:

x : int = 123
x :     = 123
x := 123
x := int(123)

Note: it is more common to see x: int = 123 where the : is attached to the variable name itself

This syntax has its origins in the language Newsqueak. It can be thought of that : declares and = assigns; it is not a single token :=.

Odin also has a different kind of declaration for constant value declarations:

X :: 123
X :   : 123

Y : int : 123
Y :: int(123)

Z :: proc() {...}
Z : proc() : proc() {...} // Redundant type declaration

Here the first : still declares, whilst the second : defines; it is not a single token ::.

Note: Constant value declarations are compile known values and not equivalent to C’s const (an immutable [runtime] variable) but closer to C’s #define in terms of semantics.

  1. Many think of C’s declarations to be read in a “spiral”: ↩︎

  2. In those versions of C, if the type was never declared (including the return type), everything was assumed to be of type int↩︎

  3. It should be noted that C allows for a shorthand where the programmer does not have to explicitly dereference the procedure pointer so pp(x, y) is valid, but it is still required to declare the procedure as a pointer to a procedure because the procedure has an unknown size. ↩︎